Monday, 9 April 2012



By Wayne A. Thorp

Pick up any technical analysis trade magazine, and inevitably you will run
across companies and practitioners marketing technical analysis trading
systems. Like any other type of investment strategy or methodology, a
popular way to determine how one system stacks up against another is by
comparing annual returns. While these numbers are helpful in separating the
winners from the losers, it is important to keep in mind that a multitude of
factors impacts the performance of any trading system.
When judging the efficacy of a system’s reported performance or the
performance of a system you create, keep in mind several issues:
· Are the performance figures based on backtesting or actual trading?
· Is the system optimized and, if so, how does it perform over “hold-out”
· How does it handle income reinvestment?
· Are there any tax implications?
· What are the assumptions inherent to the system itself—commissions,
slippage, and money and risk management stops?
This article will walk you through a general discussion of how these elements
can impact the financial performance of a trading system.


When confronted with the results of a trading system, your first thought
should be: How were these results generated? If a system claims returns of
25% a year, is this based on actual trading or historical backtesting?
Backtesting involves testing a system using a set of historical data. Results
based on actual trading have a greater degree of credibility because returns
are generated over actual trading conditions as they happen. Secondly, results
based on backtesting are more easily manipulated to generate the highest
possible return (the practice is called optimizing).


However, backtesting using historical data is the most efficient manner to
derive system performance statistics. Backtesting is the fastest and most
popular way to gauge the potential profitability of a trading system. The
process of backtesting involves running a system over historical data. The end
result is system performance statistics that show how the system would have
performed had it actually been used over that time period. In order to
backtest a system, all you need is the historical database.
Ideally, whenever you backtest a system, you want to use a “significant”
amount of data in order to capture as many different market phases as
possible. The amount of data you will require depends, in part, on the system
you are testing—real-time, tick-by-tick systems require several days or weeks
of tick data while end-of-day systems will need at least several years of daily
data. The bottom line, however, is that the more data you have, the more
complete the picture you can draw from your backtesting results.

A drawback to historical backtesting is that results are based upon events that have taken place in the past. Therefore, the most you
can hope to learn from backtesting is how a system may perform. There
is no guarantee that what has happened in the past will repeat
itself going forward. The usefulness of backtesting lies in its ability to
provide insight into how a system may react in various market conditions.
Backtesting can often show you if a system works better during
trending markets compared to trading (sideways) markets, or vice
versa. You should also keep in mind the period over which a system is
backtested. If backtested results cover “odd” periods, this should
serve as a red flag for possible manipulation. Companies sometimes
only report results for the periods in which the system performed best. If the results are for the period 1992 through 1999, you should ask
yourself how the system did during the market downturns of 1991 and
2000. Often, the performance of the system outside the reporting period
will have an adverse affect on the overall performance. Ideally, you
would like to have system results
that cover several market cycles— both good and bad.
A final thought to consider is how a system performed in comparison
to a “buy and hold” strategy. The whole idea behind trading a given strategy is to garner greater returns
than if you simply bought the stock and held it over the period. If you cannot outperform such a strategy, you need to go back to the drawing
board and try again.


Optimizing is the process of “fitting” a trading system to a specific set of data. For example, suppose you are using a simple moving average system that generates buy signals when the closing
price moves above the moving average and sell signals when the
closing price moves below the moving average line. Optimizing
would run the system over the data, testing varying moving average
lengths to find the period that netted the largest gain or the smallest loss.
The problem with optimizing is that you are finding the best set of
parameters for a fixed period in the past. However, there is no guarantee
that the past will repeat itself. While optimizing isn’t necessarily a bad
thing, it is easy to fall into the trap of over-optimizing. In the end, you
may have a system that performs spectacularly in the optimization
period, but falls apart when tested over any other period.
One way to validate or disprove the effectiveness of optimizing is through the use of a “hold-out” period—a set of data over which the system is not optimized. Returning to our earlier example, let us assume
you have 20 years of historical data for backtesting. A hold-out technique
to follow would be to optimize the system over one half of the
data (10 years) to arrive at the optimal moving average period
length. From there, you would then test the optimized system over the
second half of data. If the results from the two 10-year periods are
comparable, you can be more confident that the system will
perform in a similar manner over other periods and, most importantly,
going forward. If, on the other hand, the results over the last 10 years
differ dramatically from the first 10 years, you should begin to question
the viability of the system.


You should be aware of a few factors that, while today’s software
does not take them into account, can affect the overall performance of a
trading system. The receipt or reinvestment of
dividends is an issue that is not handled by most technical analysis
programs. However, it can have a significant bearing on a system’s performance. If you trade stocks that pay dividends, the dividend income received will have a positive impact
on performance. Another issue that few, if any, trading system packages explicitly account for is taxes. Depending on
your holding period—short-term or long-term—the marginal tax rate on your gains will differ. Those holding an investment for over one year are
subject to the long-term capital gains rate of 20%. If you hold an investment for less than a year, gains are
viewed as income, which is taxed at your marginal income tax rate.
Depending on your income tax bracket, therefore, you would need
to generate a higher rate of return to overcome the tax effects as compared to someone holding their investment(s) for more than one


When you construct a trading system, the assumptions you make
(or fail to make) play a role in how well your system may perform.
These assumptions involve initial equity position, trading on margin,
the handling of short trades, commissions, time and price slippage,
risk and money management stops, and interest earned on idle balances.

Initial Equity

The initial equity amount is the amount of money you have in your
account before you begin trading. By beginning with a sizable amount of
equity, you gain greater flexibility in the form of entering a larger position, which, in turn, can generate larger total dollar gains (or losses).
Typically, by entering with more money, you can stay in the game
longer. This is especially true if you plan to short stocks. Short sellers
hope to profit from stock price declines by borrowing stock and
selling it first, then buying the stock later at a lower price and returning
the borrowed shares. When a stock is sold short, your potential loss
extends well beyond your initial investment. Depending on who you
ask, you will probably receive different answers regarding the
“ideal” equity balance. Ultimately, it is up to you, just be sure you can
afford to lose it!

Short, Long, or Both?

One critical issue involves how to deal with sell orders. When a sell is
triggered, you could sell your long position and go to cash, or you can
elect to be more aggressive and “double down.” This involves selling
your long position and establishing a short position in which you profit if
the security decreases in value, but you lose money if the security goes
up in value.


Margin investing is a delicate topic that investors should understand
before attempting. Margin is money you borrow from a broker, similar to
a loan, that you then use to buy stocks. You cannot buy all stocks on
margin: Those priced below $5, certain other Nasdaq stocks, and
IPOs within a certain period of their introduction are excluded.
Brokers are regulated by the Federal Reserve as to how much
credit they can extend to their clients. Currently, you can initially borrow
up to 50% of the value of your marginable securities for stocks. For
example, assume you have $10,000 in a margin-approved brokerage
account. This means you can purchase up to $20,000 of marginable
securities, with 50% coming from you and 50% from the brokerage.
Another way to word it is that you have $20,000 of “buying power.”
The amount you are able to borrow on margin fluctuates on a
daily basis as the prices of the marginable securities rise and fall. If
the prices increase, so too does the amount you can borrow. The
opposite holds true as well: As prices fall, the value of the marginable
securities—your collateral—falls as well. If the value of your margined
securities falls below a predetermined minimum level, you will receive a
“margin call” from your broker. At this juncture, you are required to
either liquidate part of your existing position or send in more money to
bring the value of your account back above the predetermined level;
or your broker can sell your securities without calling.
Investing on margin carries with it risks and rewards—it magnifies the
effects of gains and losses. Returning to our $10,000 margin account example, let us assume you buy 1,000 shares of stock priced at $20.
You pay for this transaction by borrowing $10,000 from your
broker and using your $10,000 from your account. If, in a year, the price
rises to $40 a share, the value of your investment has risen from
$20,000 to $40,000. If you sell the shares and pay back the $10,000
you borrowed from your broker (including margin interest—interest
charged by the broker for the privilege of using their money), you
would have roughly $30,000 remaining—$20,000 of which is profit to you.

On the other hand, if you simply use your $10,000 to buy 500 shares
of the $20 stock, your profit would be roughly $10,000. In the first
example, you would have made $20,000 on a $10,000 investment,
while in the second you would have made $10,000 on that same
$10,000 investment. Just as margin can improve your profit, it can also worsen your losses. If the $20 stock you initially bought on margin falls to $15 a share, the investment value falls from $20,000 to $15,000. After paying back the $10,000 you borrowed from the broker, you are
left with $5,000 of your original $10,000. Without margin, the 500
shares you bought at $20 would now be worth a total of $7,500.
With margin, you lose $2,500 more than you would have using only
your own money. Be aware, too, that in our examples we did not
account for commissions, margin interest, or capital gains taxes,
which, as we have discussed, will impact the bottom line.


People tend to forget what a dramatic impact commissions—the
fees paid for buying and selling securities through a broker—can
have on the overall success of a trading system. To get a more accurate picture of a system’s profitability, it is important
to figure in the commission costs. This is especially important
for a system that generates numerous buy and sell signals, which will
dramatically lower the profits or increase the losses of a system. Commissions can vary greatly
depending on the type of security
you are trading and whether you are
using a deep-discount broker or a
full-service one.


Another element that many traders lose sight of is the fact that
you will rarely be able to enter or
exit a trade at exactly the same price at which the trading signal
was generated. If your system is based on end-of-day data, a buy or
sell signal will be generated after the market close. Realistically, your first
opportunity to act on the signal is at the open the next day. The difference
between the price at which the signal was generated and the price
at which your order is actually filled is called slippage. When testing a
trading system, it is important to account for slippage; otherwise the
trading results are overstated. Some
software programs allow you to specify slippage in dollar or percentage
terms, while others allow you to build in a time delay between the signal and order execution.


Perhaps the most useful tool in
developing a trading system is a stop. Compared to commissions and
slippage, which are costs associated
with a system, stops are more of a system “tweaking” mechanism.
Stops are user-defined points where a position is closed out. When a
stop is triggered, the position is closed regardless of the current
status of your trading rules. Stops allow you to limit your losses should
a trade go against you. The stops
you specify in a trading system are similar to stop-loss orders you can
place when executing a trade. As the
name suggests, a stop-loss order is designed to stop a loss. If you
purchase a stock for $30, you can
protect yourself against the possibility
of it falling in price by placing a stop-loss sell at $30. A market order
to sell the stock is placed if the stock
falls below $30.
There are several strategies using stops when creating a trading
system, the most popular being breakeven, inactivity, maximum loss,
profit target, and trailing stops.
Breakeven stops close open positions when the closed-out value
of the position equals the amount at which the current trade was opened.
The stop is placed at the price where
the trade could be closed and the proceeds generated would equal the
equity value when the trade was
opened. Inactivity stops will close an open
position when the security’s price
does not generate a minimum percent or price change within a
specified time period. If you specify 1% as the minimum change and 20
as the number of periods, the system
would automatically close any long (short) positions where the security’s
price has not increased (decreased)
by at least 1% within any 20-period time frame.
Maximum loss (max loss) stops are
useful as a risk management strategy, because you can specify the
exact percentage or dollar amount of your total equity you wish to risk on
a given position. These stops close an open position when the losses resulting from the trade exceed the
specified maximum loss amount. Profit target stops exit a trade
once it reaches a predetermined profit level. Therefore, if you specify
10% as the profit target, open positions will be closed when they
generate a 10% profit (after commissions). Lastly, trailing stops close open positions when a specified amount of
the current open position’s profits is
lost. Each time a position’s profits reach a new high, the trailing stop is
moved to a level that allows a
specified portion of the position’s profits to be lost.
You are also able to specify the number of periods to ignore in
trailing stops. For example, if you instruct the system to ignore three
periods, the trailing stop will lag by
three periods. Therefore, the last three periods’ profits or losses will
be ignored when determining the current stop level. Such lags are
useful in filtering out price swings.
However, you need to exercise caution when using trailing stops.
They are not designed to limit losses, but to lock in profits.

Idle Interest

Depending on the type of system you are using, there may be times
when you are not in a trade. This means that all long trades have been
closed and short trades covered.
Ideally, you will be earning some interest on this “idle balance.” The
interest you might earn is influenced by several factors, including the
brokerage firm you use to execute
your trades, the cash accounts available, and the size of your

Now that you know what to
consider when testing a trading system and examining the results in
general terms, let’s take a look at an
example of how these factors can impact the performance of an actual
system using historical data. For this article, we used MetaStock 7.0 by
Equis International. Before you can begin testing a
system, you obviously need to have a system to test. A trading system
can be as simple or as complex as you can imagine—from a moving
average crossover system to one consisting of several highly evolved
indicators. For our example here, we use a 50-day exponential moving
average (EMA). The exponential, or exponentially weighted, moving
average is calculated by taking a percentage of today’s closing price
and applying it to yesterday’s moving average, with greater
emphasis placed on the newest price. (To learn about exponential moving
averages, refer to the August 1999 AAII Journal article, “An Intro to
Moving Averages: Popular Technical Indicators” on our web site.)
With our system, buy signals are generated (and short positions
covered) when the closing price
moves above the 50-day exponential moving average. Likewise, long
positions are closed and short positions are entered when the
closing price falls below the 50-day
exponential moving average. This system may seem overly simplistic,
but it illustrates the elements we have been discussing when evaluating,
testing, and optimizing a trading system.
To show how the factors such as
commission, slippage, and stops can impact the overall performance of a
trading system, we must have a benchmark against which to compare
their impacts. Therefore, we begin by presenting a system that, in
effect, ignores many of these issues.
Using Walt Disney, we ran our initial test over the 20-year period
from November 3, 1980, to October 31, 2000. The only assumptions we
made for this test are that we handle
both long and short trades and that we begin with a non-margin account
balance of $10,000. We do not
account for commissions, slippage, stops, or interest on idle balances.
Running this “sterile” system resulted in a net profit of
$20,603.32 over the period. While
the system made money, it fell well short of the return netted by a buyand- hold strategy. If you had bought
$10,000 of Disney stock at the
beginning of the period and sold it at the end, you would have earned
$384,480.56! At this point, it is evident that this system needs some
improving before it is ready to be traded in the real world. Next, we apply our assumptions to
the system, individually first and then in combination. We begin by
testing our system assuming that we borrowed 20% of our equity on
margin. Although federal regulations
allow you to borrow up to 50%, we recommend this only for experienced
traders who are well-versed in the implications of trading on margin.
Trading on margin had a slightly
negative effect on this system—we netted $20,461.44, or $141.88 less
than what we would have earned had we not traded on margin.
However, if we had followed a buy
and hold strategy using margin, we would have earned an extra $97,000.
Then we tested the system assuming that we pay a $15 commission
for each trade generated by the system—$15 for each buy and $15
for each sell. The 807 buy and sell
trades the system generated over the 20-year period cost us $12,105 in
commissions. However the true cost was $14,101.46 since the money
spent on commissions can not be
spent on trades which may cost us on profitable trades or save us on
losing trades. Obviously, depending
on the price you pay for transactions
and the number of trades you place,
the amount you pay in commissions
can vary significantly. Accounting for slippage, we
instructed the system to execute trades at the opening price the day
after the signal was generated. This adds a greater degree of realism to
the system since signals are not generated until after the close of
trading for the day. This “delay” in
execution had a tremendous impact on the overall performance of the
system—a net loss of $1,604.27, or
$22,207.59 less than the “sterile” system.
In a system such as this, which is fully invested, idle interest is not
much of a consideration. In fact, the only interest we earned on our idle
balance was during the first 50 days of the system. Since there was no 50-
day exponential moving average during this period, we were not in
any trades and we earned $60.
Lastly, we entered in our protective
stops for the system. The two we used were a trailing stop and
max-loss stop. Our maximum-loss stop closes a trade if it loses 2% of
our remaining equity. Therefore, in
essence, we are risking 2% of our equity per trade. Remember, however,
that because of slippage, we
run the risk of losing more than 2% on a given trade. Our trailing stop
risks 20% of our profit while ignoring one period to filter out
random price swings. Implementing
our stops into the system has a significant positive impact—it netted
$102,050.32, $81,447 more than the
sterile system. Having discussed all of our factors
in isolation and showed how they
impact the performance of our system, it is time to see how they
work in tandem with one another. Our last test combines all of the
assumptions we have covered, and
the end result stands in stark contrast to the result we first arrived at.
In this case, our system exhausted all of the equity in our account, leaving
us with a loss—an ending amount of
$9,999.46. Overall, the system generated 502 trades, which cost us
$7,530 in commissions. Furthermore, our idle balance earned
$268.96 over the 3,630 days the
system was out of all trades, due in large part to a lack of liquidity to
execute trades. Obviously, this
system needs some work before it is ready for actual trading!


What sometimes gets lost in the discussion of trading systems is the
fact that, although they are mechanical in their generation of buy and
sell signals, most programs are not capable of executing their orders for
you. Therefore, the performance of
your system is ultimately contingent on whether you execute each and
every trade when you are supposed to. The most difficult thing for many
traders is not creating, testing, or
optimizing a system, it is actually following it in real-time.
Depending on the type of system
you are trading, you may have to devote a significant amount of time
to monitoring it and executing trades. Intraday systems, those based
on real-time or intraday delayed data, may require your undivided
attention through the course of a
trading day. End-of-day systems, while not demanding the same
attention, require daily examination. Therefore, time is another intangible
cost associated with following a systematic trading strategy.


It is clear from our discussion here that many forces are at work when
you trade a system. Commissions,
slippage, protective stops, idle interest, margin, and short trading
all in their unique way influence a trading system’s results.
Comparing the results of our initial test where we ignored many
of these factors to the results generated
when we integrated them shows how important it is take them all
into consideration when evaluating or testing a trading system.

1 comment:

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